1. Transformer
2. Transformer blocks

## ​Tutorial

To introduce how the Transformer Actions library works, we will perform some cleaning actions on the Titanic Survival dataset. Open the Mage app and create a new pipeline. Add a data loader with the following code to load the Titanic Survival dataset:

from mage_ai.io.file import FileIO
from pandas import DataFrame

"""
"""
filepath = 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/datasciencedojo/datasets/master/titanic.csv'


Run this block to load the Titanic Survival dataset into your pipeline.

You’ll notice that there are three columns that have missing values: “Cabin”, “Age”, “Embarked”. Let’s perform imputation to fill in these missing values using the Transformer Action Library. Create a new transformer block below, and select the “Fill in missing values” template.

You should see the following code in your new transformer block:

from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.base import BaseAction
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.constants import ActionType, Axis, ImputationStrategy
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils import build_transformer_action
from pandas import DataFrame

if 'transformer' not in globals():
from mage_ai.data_preparation.decorators import transformer

@transformer
def execute_transformer_action(df: DataFrame, *args, **kwargs) -> DataFrame:
"""
Execute Transformer Action: ActionType.IMPUTE
"""
action = build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.IMPUTE,
arguments=df.columns,  # Specify columns to impute
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'strategy': ImputationStrategy.CONSTANT},  # Specify imputation strategy
)

return BaseAction(action).execute(df)


Let’s break this code down:

• build_transformer_action() creates a transformer action payload, which is a dictionary that describes settings for the action to complete. The arguments passed in are
• df - the data frame to transform, used to infer column types
• action_type - specifies the action to perform. In this case, we are performing an IMPUTE action.
• arguments - specifies the columns to perform the action on. Currently, the action is configured to impute all columns of the data frame. Since we only want to transform “Cabin”, “Age”, and “Embarked”, we will update this entry to only contain these column names.
• axis - specifies which axis to perform the action on. Imputing values is done on a per column basis, so this is a column transformation.
• options - these are extra settings to specify for this action. For an impute transformation, the main option to specify is 'strategy', dictating the imputation strategy to use. See Fill in Missing Values for details on the valid imputation strategies. For now we will use MODE, which specifies to fill empty values with the most frequent value per column.

The modified transformer block is:

from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.base import BaseAction
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.constants import ActionType, Axis, ImputationStrategy
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils import build_transformer_action
from pandas import DataFrame

if 'transformer' not in globals():
from mage_ai.data_preparation.decorators import transformer

@transformer
def execute_transformer_action(df: DataFrame, *args, **kwargs) -> DataFrame:
"""
Execute Transformer Action: ActionType.IMPUTE
"""
action = build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.IMPUTE,
arguments=['Cabin', 'Age', 'Embarked'],  # Specify columns to impute
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'strategy': ImputationStrategy.MODE},  # Specify imputation strategy
)

return BaseAction(action).execute(df)


Execute this transformer - you should notice that all null values are now filled with the mode value of each respective column! After the payload is created by build_transformer_action(), the payload is used to construct the BaseAction object, representing a reusable instance of the transformation. Then the transformation is executed on the input data frame using execute(), returning the transformed data frame when done.

Suppose then you’re interested in computing the average fare and age by each location of embarkation - Southampton (S), Cherbourg (C), and Queenstown (Q). Transformer Actions can help us here as well - create a new transformer using the “Aggregate/Aggregate by average value” template.

You should see the following code in your new transformer block.

from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.base import BaseAction
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.constants import ActionType, Axis
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils import build_transformer_action
from pandas import DataFrame

if 'transformer' not in globals():
from mage_ai.data_preparation.decorators import transformer

@transformer
def execute_transformer_action(df: DataFrame, *args, **kwargs) -> DataFrame:
"""
Execute Transformer Action: ActionType.AVERAGE
"""
action = build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.AVERAGE,
action_code='',  # Enter filtering condition on rows before aggregation
arguments=[],  # Enter the columns to compute aggregate over
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'groupby_columns': []},  # Enter columns to group by
outputs=[
# The number of outputs below must match the number of arguments
{'uuid': 'new_aggregate_column_1', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
{'uuid': 'new_aggregate_column_2', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
],
)

return BaseAction(action).execute(df)


As before, we can fill in the settings we need for performing this aggregation by average value:

• action_code is used by aggregation-type transformer actions to filter rows of the dataset before performing the aggregation. For example, if the “Embarked” column had null values, we could filter them out using the filter 'Embarked != null'. In this case we won’t perform any filtering. See Filter Syntax for more details on valid filter syntax.
• Since we want to aggregate over “Fare” and “Age”, our arguments are ['Fare', 'Age']
• In options, the only parameter is groupby_columns which is the list of the columns to group by when performing the aggregation. In this case, the column we want to use to form groups is “Embarked”
• outputs is used to specify the name and type of the new columns created by the aggregation. As there are two columns in arguments that we want to perform the aggregation over, there should be two corresponding entries in outputs.

The resulting template after these edits are:

from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.base import BaseAction
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.constants import ActionType, Axis
from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils import build_transformer_action
from pandas import DataFrame

if 'transformer' not in globals():
from mage_ai.data_preparation.decorators import transformer

@transformer
def execute_transformer_action(df: DataFrame, *args, **kwargs) -> DataFrame:
"""
Execute Transformer Action: ActionType.AVERAGE
"""
action = build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.AVERAGE,
action_code='',  # Enter filtering condition on rows before aggregation
arguments=['Fare', 'Age'],  # Enter the columns to compute aggregate over
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'groupby_columns': ['Embarked']},  # Enter columns to group by
outputs=[
# The number of outputs below must match the number of arguments
{'uuid': 'avg_fare_by_embarked_loc', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
{'uuid': 'avg_age_by_embarked_loc', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
],
)

return BaseAction(action).execute(df)


Run this transformer, and your output data frame should now include two new columns named “avg_fare_by_embarked_loc” and “avg_age_by_embarked_loc” which contain the average fare and average age by embarkation location. Each row gets a new value corresponding to the group which that row falls into.

This workflow can be summarized to describe how Transformer Actions can be used effectively:

1. Identify a transformation that may need to be made to your data
2. Create a transformer using the transformer action that corresponds to your template
3. Fill in the parameters for the transformer action to build your transformer action payload
4. Build a BaseAction object using the payload and execute the action to get the transformed data frame

## ​Core Concepts

The core object of any transformer action is the payload, a JSON object that describes the transformation to perform alongside settings for that transformation. A sample transformer action payload is shown below:

{
"action_type": "impute",
"action_arguments": ["age", "name"],
"action_options": {
"strategy": "constant",
"value": "32"
},
"axis": "column",
"action_variables": {
"age": {
"uuid": "age",
"column_type": "number"
},
"name": {
"uuid": "hourly_salary",
"column_type": "text"
}
}
}


The above transformer action imputes missing values in the “age” and “hourly_salary” columns with the constant value 32. Here is a list of the keys used in transformer action payloads:

KeyDescription
axisAxis to perform the transformation on. Either ‘row’ or ‘column’.
action_typeType of action to perform. See Transformer Action Reference for the list of action types.
action_codeText field for specifying any code such as filters.
action_argumentsThe columns to perform the transformation on.
action_optionsOther settings to provide to the transformer action. See Transformer Action Reference for specific details on which actions require which options.
action_variablesVariable metadata for each input argument (column). Specifies column name and type.
outputsVariable metadata for each output column. Specifies column name and type. See Column Types for information on possible column types to specify.

This JSON formatted payload is difficult to generate so it is recommended to use the build_transformer_action factory to generate the payload. The above snippet generates the same payload as above:

from mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils import build_transformer_action

df = pd.DataFrame({...}) # your input data frame
df,
action_type=ActionType.IMPUTE,
arguments=['age'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'strategy': 'constants', 'values': 32},
)


See Building Transformer Actions for detailed information on using build_transformer_action.

The transformer action payload, once built, can be used to construct a BaseAction object. This object processes the payload to identify the transformations to apply a data frame. Through this action object, the transformer action can be applied to a data frame using the execute function:

payload = build_transformer_action(...)


# ​Building Transformer Actions

build_transformer_action - build_transformer_action(df: DataFrame, action_type: ActionType | str, arguments: List[str], action_code: str, options: Dict, axis: Axis | str, outputs: List[Dict]) -> Dict:

Source: mage_ai.data_cleaner.transformer_actions.utils.build_transformer_action

Builds transformer action payload from arguments. The output of this function can be passed as input to transformer_actions.base.BaseAction in order to perform the requested transformation.

Note: Action variables are inferred from arguments and df.

• Args:
• df (DataFrame): The data frame to build a transformer action payload for.
• action_type (ActionType | str): Transformer action to perform.
• arguments (List[str], optional): Columns to perform this action on. Defaults to [].
• action_code (str, optional): Special code or query to execute with action. Defaults to ''.
• options (Dict, optional): Options specifying behavior of action. Defaults to {}.
• axis (Union[Axis, str], optional): Axis of the data frame to apply the action to. Defaults to Axis.COLUMN.
• outputs (List[Dict], optional): Specifies metadata of newly created columns. Defaults to [].
• Returns: (Dict) Transformer action payload to use with transformer_actions.base.BaseAction
• Example:
  action = build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.FIRST,
action_code='retailer != null and retail_price >= 0',  # Enter filtering condition on rows before aggregation
arguments=['retail_price', 'review'],  # Enter the columns to compute aggregate over
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'groupby_columns': ['retailer']},  # Enter columns to group by
outputs=[
# The number of outputs below must match the number of arguments
{'uuid': 'first_retail_price', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
{'uuid': 'first_review', 'column_type': 'category'},
],
)


# ​Column Actions

## ​Aggregation Actions

Applies some aggregation function over groups determined by values in some columns. A set of grouping columns are provided, whose unique combinations of values are used to form groups. For example, consider the dataset below:

Paid DuesDue Amount
Yes$5.00 No$15.20
Yes$3.50 Yes$1.28
No$25.03 The data could be grouped by “Paid Dues” to form the following groups: Paid DuesDue Amount Yes$5.00
Yes$3.50 Yes$1.28
Paid DuesDue Amount
No$15.20 No$25.03

Then an aggregation function is applied to each group over the input columns. In the example, we can compute the total dues by group by aggregating over “Due Amount”:

Paid DuesTotal Due Amount
Yes$9.78 No$40.23

Then the output of this aggregation is used to create a new column for each input column, where each row receives the corresponding aggregate of the group it falls into. In the example above, the final output data frame would be:

Paid DuesDue AmountTotal Due Amount by Payment Status
Yes$5.00$9.78
No$15.20$40.23
Yes$3.50$9.78
Yes$1.28$9.78
No$25.03$40.23

All of these transformer actions have the same set of arguments when using build_transformer_action, but have different types corresponding to the different aggregation functions that could be applied to the groups.

Example

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.AVERAGE,
action_code='brand != null',
arguments=['revenue', 'cost'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'groupby_columns': ['brand']},
outputs=[
{'uuid': 'avg_rev_per_brand', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
{'uuid': 'avg_cost_per_brand', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'},
],
)


Args

• action_code: Filter for selecting rows before aggregation is performed. See Filter Syntax for more information on valid filter syntax.
• arguments: Columns to compute aggregate values over. For each argument a new column will be created to store the aggregates values over the column.
• If no arguments are provided, no aggregation is performed
• options:
• groupby_columns (optional) - list of columns to form groups with when aggregating. A group consists of each unique combination of values chosen from each of the columns specified in this option.
• If this is empty, aggregation is performed over the first column specified in arguments (only if arguments is nonempty - if empty no aggregation is performed) and only one column is added
The following options are used as a shortcut to simplify filtering over time windows.
Let $A$ and $B$ be datetime columns, and let $\text{window}$ be an integer describing the length of
a time window in seconds. If the following options are specified, rows for which the time value for
$B \in [A, A + \text{window}]$ are selected (All rows where value for $B$ must (a) be greater than
or equal to the value for $A$ and (b) less than or equal to the value $A+window$).

• timestamp_feature_a (optional) - time feature A (a column in the data frame)
• timestamp_feature_b (optional) - time feature B (a column in the data frame)
• window (optional) - max time window between feature A and feature B in seconds

If some (or none) of these options are specified, then the filtering is not performed. Regardless if this filtering is performed, action_code filtering is still performed.

• outputs: Specifies the metadata for each output column of the aggregation (corresponding to the aggregation created from input argument in arguments). This array must be the same length as arguments, and each entry must contain the following metadata:
• uuid (string): Name of the new column
• column_type (string | ColumnType): Type of the new column ( See mage_ai.data_cleaner.column_types.constants.ColumnType for options)

Aggregation Functions These are the possible aggregations that can be applied to each group per each input column. To use the aggregation function specify the corresponding action type in build_transformer_action.

NameAction Type EnumDescription
AverageActionType.AVERAGEAverages input column value over each group
Count DistinctActionType.COUNT_DISTINCTCounts the number of distinct rows in each group per input column
CountActionType.COUNTCounts the number of rows in each group per input column
FirstActionType.FIRSTFor each input column, selects first item in each group (as appearing in the order of the original data frame)
LastActionType.LASTFor each input column, selects last item in each group (as appearing in the order of the original data frame)
MaximumActionType.MAXGets the maximum value per group for each input column
MedianActionType.MEDIANGets the median value per group for each input column
MinimumActionType.MINGets the maximum value per group for each input column
SumActionType.SUMSums over all values in each group per input column

## ​Formatting Actions

These transformer actions involve reformatting column names or the values in columns

### ​Clean Column Names

Cleans column names according to the following rules:

1. Names are converted to snake case
2. All wrapping whitespace or underscores are removed
3. All non-alphanumeric characters (except ”_”) are removed
4. Numbers are prefixed with “number_”
5. All Python keywords are postfixed by ”_”

Snake case is chosen as

1. all characters are lower case
2. no whitespace is used (which makes referring to columns in code easier)
Original NameCleaned NameNotes
good_namegood_namecolumns in snake case are left unchanged
%@#342%34@@#342number_34234342Symbols are removed first, then number is cleaned
PascalCaseColumnpascal_case_column
camelCaseTextcamel_case_text
___snake_case___snake_caseSurrounding underscores are stripped

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.CLEAN_COLUMN_NAME,
arguments=df.columns,
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: Columns whose name to clean. If empty, no columns names are cleaned.

### ​Fix Syntax Errors

Marks syntax errors in column values. Syntax errors are defined as values that are improperly formatted or of the incorrect type. For example:

• A number in a text column
• An improperly formatted email, phone number, or zip code
• An improperly formatted date

Values that break these syntax errors are currently marked as:

• "invalid" if column is of categorical or string type
• pandas.NaT if column is a datetime
• np.nan if column is a number type

WIP: Intelligently fix syntax errors in these columns automatically

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.FIX_SYNTAX_ERRORS,
arguments=df.columns,
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: Columns to mark syntax errors for. If empty no columns are checked.

### ​Reformat Values

Reformats values in column based on requested action. The currently supported reformats are:

• Standardize capitalization (reformat = 'caps_standardization'): Forces text column to follow a single capitalization strategy (either lowercase or uppercase)
• Convert currencies to a number (reformat = 'currency_to_num'): Converts a currency value (by default stored as a string) to a decimal number. If unable to convert, doesn’t perform conversion
• Supported currencies: $, CAD, £, €, ¥, Rs, 元 Original StringParsed DecimalNotes ”$ 10000”10000
”- ¥ 22.324523”-22.324523Negation in front of symbol supported
” 10000 元 ”10000Currencies with postfixed symbols are supported
“0.42 €”0.42
“Rs - 100000.23”-100000.23Negation after symbol is supported
• Convert string to datetime (reformat = 'date_time_conversion'): Converts a string value representing a datetime to a pandas.Timestamp object if correctly formatted, else converts to None.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.REFORMAT,
arguments=[],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'reformat': 'caps_standardization', 'capitalization': 'lowercase'},
)


Args

• arguments: Columns to apply the reformat action to
• options:
• reformat (optional): The reformat action to apply to the specified columns. Can be:
• None - no reformat is applied
• 'caps_standardization' - standardize capitalization
• 'currency_to_num' - convert currency string to number
• 'date_format_conversion' - convert datetime string to pandas.Timestamp
• capitalization (optional): Specifies the capitalization strategy to use when standardizing capitalization. This argument is ignored unless reformat = "caps_standardization". Options are ['lowercase', 'uppercase'].

## ​Column Removal Actions

### ​Select Columns

Keeps only the specified columns; removes all other columns from data frame.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.SELECT,
arguments=[],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: The columns to keep in the data frame. If empty, all columns are removed.

### ​Remove Columns

Drops the specified columns.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.REMOVE,
arguments=[],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: The columns to keep in the data frame. If empty, no columns are removed.

## ​Row Shifting Actions

These actions copy a column with all rows shifted up or down by a certain amount. When rows are shifted, one or more values are deleted and some new values have to be filled in. The fill-in data types are:

TypeFill Value
Numericnp.nan
Datetimepandas.NaT
Other TypesNone

### ​Shift Up

Shifts all rows in a column up by one. The first entry is deleted and the last entry is turned to a null type.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.SHIFT_UP,
arguments=['Name'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
outputs=[{'uuid': 'shifted_name', 'type': 'text'}],
)


Args

• arguments: The column to shift up. At most one column can be shifted at once:
• If multiple columns are provided as arguments, only the first is shifted up
• If no columns are provided then no shifting is performed
• outputs: Metadata for the newly added upshifted column. Must have at most a single entry containing the following information:
• uuid: Name of the new upshifted column
• type: Data type of the new upshifted column

### ​Shift Down

Shifts all rows up by periods rows. The last periods entries are deleted and the first periods are converted to a null type.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.SHIFT_DOWN,
arguments=['created_time'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'periods': 3},
outputs=[{'uuid': 'downshifted_created_time', 'type': 'datetime'}],
)


Args

• arguments: The column to shift down. At most one column can be shifted at once:
• If multiple columns are provided as arguments, only the first is shifted down
• If no columns are provided then no shifting is performed
• options:
• periods (optional): Specifies how many rows to shift down. Defaults to 1.
• groupby_columns (optional): Specifies columns to group by. If specified, shifts each group by periods rows instead of the entire data frame. The resulting column is then returned. If unspecified no grouping is performed. Multiple columns can be specified to group by.
• outputs: Metadata for the newly added downshifted column. Must have at most a single entry containing the following information:
• uuid: Name of the new downshifted column
• type: Data type of the new downshifted column

## ​Feature Scaling Actions

These actions are used to normalize the range of independent variables or features of data. These actions are generally performed during the data preprocessing step.

TypeFormula
Normalization(X-Xmin)/(Xmax-Xmin)
Standardization(X-Xmean)/Xstd

### ​Normalize Data

Perform Normalization on the desired columns of a dataset.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.NORMALIZE,
arguments=['Column1','Column2'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: The columns to Normalize.
• If no columns are provided then no Normalization is performed

### ​Standardize Data

Perform Standardization on the desired columns of a dataset.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.STANDARDIZE,
arguments=['Column1','Column2'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
)


Args

• arguments: The columns to Standardize.
• If no columns are provided then no Standardization is performed

## ​Other Column Actions

### ​Difference

Adds a new column where each row is the difference between every consecutive two rows in the original column.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.DIFF,
arguments=['position'],
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
outputs=[{'uuid': 'delta_position', 'column_type': 'number_with_decimals'}],
)


Args

• arguments: The column to calculate difference on. At most one column can be specified:
• If multiple columns are provided as arguments, only the first is used in calculated
• If no columns are provided then no calculation
• outputs: Metadata for the newly added difference column. Must have at most a single entry containing the following information:
• uuid: Name of the difference column
• type: Data type of the difference column (most often will be a number)

### ​Fill In Missing Values

Imputes missing values using different strategies:

StrategyDescription
AverageFill missing values with the average per column.
ColumnFill missing values with values from another column.
ConstantFill missing values with a placeholder constant. Can fill with a specific value; otherwise a default placeholder is chosen by column type.
MedianFill missing values with the median per column.
ModeFill missing values with the most frequent value per column.
RandomFill missing values with a randomly sampled non-null value from same column.
SequentialFill missing values with the previous row. Should only be used with timeseries columns.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.IMPUTE,
arguments=df.columns,  # Specify columns to impute
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'strategy': ImputationStrategy.CONSTANT},  # Specify imputation strategy
)


Args

• arguments: The columns to impute (fill in the missing values).
• options:
• strategy (required): Specifies strategy to use. See table above or enum ImputationStrategy
• value (optional): Value to fill in missing value with. This argument is ignored unless strategy = 'constant', in which case the constant value used to impute is value.
• timeseries_cols = [] (optional): Columns which specify the time series in the data frame. This argument is ignored unless strategy = 'sequential', in which case the data frame is sorted along these columns to sequentially impute data in the order of the time series.

### ​Remove Outliers

Removes multidimensional outliers in the data frame by analyzing numerical columns. If there are no numerical columns, no check is performed. Null values are ignored when checking for outliers.

The following methods are supported for detecting outliers:

MethodDescription
'itree'Uses the Isolation Tree algorithm. Number of trees is set to 100.
'lof'Uses the Local Outlier Factor algorithm. Number of neighbors for computing local density scales with amount of data and contamination rate.
'auto'Automatically determines from above methods based on number of data points and dimensionality of the data.

Notes:

• The contamination rate for both algorithms is estimated via the per-dimension IQR (which discounts multidimensional interactions but still estimates how many outliers there likely are)
• If the input data has more than 20 dimensions, the dimensionality is reduced using PCA

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.REMOVE_OUTLIERS,
arguments=df.columns,  # Specify columns to remove outliers from
axis=Axis.COLUMN,
options={'method': 'auto'},  # Specify algorithm to use for outlier removal
)


Args

• arguments: The set of columns to consider when checking for outliers. Of these columns, only numerical columns will be used to calculate outliers.
• options:
• method (optional): Specifies outlier detection method to use:

• 'itree'
• 'lof'
• 'auto'

Defaults to 'auto'.

# ​Row Actions

These are transformer actions that can be applied to each row of a data frame, and so have axis = Axis.ROW.

### ​Drop Duplicates

Drops duplicate rows from the data frame.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.DROP_DUPLICATE,
arguments=[],
axis=Axis.ROW,
options={'keep': 'first'},
)


Args

• arguments: the columns along which comparisons will be made to check for duplicate rows. If empty, all columns will be used to perform comparison.
• options:
• keep (optional): specifies policy on keeping duplicates:

• 'first' - keeps the first occurrence of the row
• 'last' - keeps the last occurrence of the row
• False - removes occurrences of duplicates

Defaults to 'last'.

### ​Filter

Filters row by boolean condition. Selects all rows that meets the filter condition.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.FILTER,
axis=Axis.ROW,
action_code='column1 != null and column2 <= 5'
)


Args

• action_code: filter to apply to select rows. See Filter Syntax for more information on valid filter syntax.

### ​Remove Rows

Removes rows specified by their index. Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.REMOVE,
axis=Axis.ROW,
options={'rows': []},
)


Args

• options:
• rows: List of the indices corresponding to the rows to remove. If empty, no rows are removed.

### ​Sort

Sorts rows in the specified order.

Example:

build_transformer_action(
df,
action_type=ActionType.SORT,
arguments=[],
axis=Axis.ROW,
options={'ascending': True},
)


Args

• arguments: the columns whose value to consider while sorting rows. If empty then sort is not performed.
• options:
• ascending (optional): Specifies how to sort rows. If True, then rows are sorted in ascending order; if False sorted in descending order. Defaults to True.
• If sorted in ascending order, null values are placed at the top of the data frame in the same order as they appeared in the original data frame
• If sorted in descending order, null values are placed at the bottom of the data frame in the same order as they appeared in the original data frame
• ascendings (optional): A list of booleans specifying if each column specified in arguments should be sorted in ascending order (must be the same length). If specified, this list will take precedence over the ascending option.

# ​Appendix: Filter Syntax

Valid filters are composed of clauses of the form:

[column_name] [op] [value or column_name]

• List of valid operations: ==, !=, <=, <, >, >=, contains, not contains
• contains (and not contains) checks if the value is a substring (or not a substring) of values in the column specified.
• The right hand side of each clause can either be a literal value (boolean, number, string) or another column to compare to.

Clauses can be connected using the and and or operators and grouped with parentheses.

(brand != null and value > 60) or (discounted == null)


Rules on Naming Columns

• If column names contain only alphanumeric characters and the special character ’_’, then the raw column name can used to filter code. Example: age != null and price_of_item >= 50.23
• If columns contain whitespace, newlines, and some of the following special characters: +=-*&^%$! ?~|<>(){}[],., then the quoted column name can be used to filter code. Any quote character can be used. Example: ("+= -*&^%$! ?~ |<>" == False and ' kas22d fe (\$)' > 50.23) or ("dis>>> ??cou nted" contains "partial")
• If columns contain any other special characters apart from those listed above, the column cannot be filtered. This is a fundamental limitation of pandas, see here for more information.

# ​Appendix: Column Types

These are list of column types used in the Mage tool. One of these column types should be specified for every entry in the options argument of a transformer action. The enum source is mage_ai.data_cleaner.column_types.constants.ColumnType.

TypeEnumString ValueDescription
CategoryColumnType.CATEGORY“category”Categorical variable that takes one of some finite set of values. This set has at most 255 entries.
High Cardinality CategoryColumnType.CATEGORY_HIGH_CARDINALITY“category_high_cardinality”Categorical variable that takes one of some finite set of values. This set has more than 255 entries.
DatetimeColumnType.DATETIME“datetime”Datetime objects or strings representing a datetime.
EmailColumnType.EMAIL“email”Strings that contains emails.
ListColumnType.LIST“list”Lists of primitives (integers, strings, booleans, floats) of variable length.
NumberColumnType.NUMBER“number”Integer numbers. Can be a Python integer, NumPy integer or a stringified integer.
Floating Point NumberColumnType.NUMBER_WITH_DECIMALS“number_with_decimals”Floating point numbers. Can be a Python float, NumPy float, or a stringified float.
Phone NumberColumnType.PHONE_NUMBER“phone_number”Phone numbers (either in string form or integer form).
TextColumnType.TEXT“text”Text values, such as sentences or paragraphs.
BinaryColumnType.TRUE_OR_FALSE“true_or_false”A variable that takes on two different values (including booleans).
Zip CodeColumnType.ZIP_CODE“zip_code”Zip codes (either in string form or integer form).